This is essentially what is aimed for in radio transmitter design , where the antenna or transmission line “impedance” is matched to final power amplifier “impedance” for maximum radio frequency power output. Impedance, the overall opposition to AC and DC current, is very similar to resistance, and must be equal between source and load for the greatest amount of power to be transferred to the load. A load impedance that is too high will result in low power output. A load impedance that is too low will not only result in low power output, but possibly overheating of the amplifier due to the power dissipated in its internal (Thevenin or Norton) impedance.
Taking our Thevenin equivalent example circuit, the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem tells us that the load resistance resulting in greatest power dissipation is equal in value to the Thevenin resistance (in this case, 0.8 Ω):
With this value of load resistance, the dissipated power will be 39.2 watts:
If we were to try a lower value for the load resistance (0.5 Ω instead of 0.8 Ω, for example), our power dissipated by the load resistance would decrease:
Power dissipation increased for both the Thevenin resistance and the total circuit, but it decreased for the load resistor. Likewise, if we increase the load resistance (1.1 Ω instead of 0.8 Ω, for example), power dissipation will also be less than it was at 0.8 Ω exactly:
If you were designing a circuit for maximum power dissipation at the load resistance, this theorem would be very useful. Having reduced a network down to a Thevenin voltage and resistance (or Norton current and resistance), you simply set the load resistance equal to that Thevenin or Norton equivalent (or vice versa) to ensure maximum power dissipation at the load. Practical applications of this might include radio transmitter final amplifier stage design (seeking to maximize power delivered to the antenna or transmission line), a grid tied inverter loading a solar array, or electric vehicle design (seeking to maximize power delivered to drive motor).
The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem is not: Maximum power transfer does not coincide with maximum efficiency. Application of The Maximum Power Transfer theorem to AC power distribution will not result in maximum or even high efficiency. The goal of high efficiency is more important for AC power distribution, which dictates a relatively low generator impedance compared to load impedance.
Similar to AC power distribution, high fidelity audio amplifiers are designed for a relatively low output impedance and a relatively high speaker load impedance. As a ratio, "output impdance" : "load impedance" is known as damping factor, typically in the range of 100 to 1000. [rar] [dfd]
Maximum power transfer does not coincide with the goal of lowest noise. For example, the lowlevel radio frequency amplifier between the antenna and a radio receiver is often designed for lowest possible noise. This often requires a mismatch of the amplifier input impedance to the antenna as compared with that dictated by the maximum power transfer theorem.
 REVIEW:
 The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem states that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load resistance if it is equal to the Thevenin or Norton resistance of the network supplying power.
 The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem does not satisfy the goal of maximum efficiency.
Maximum Power Transfer
We have seen in the previous tutorials that any complex circuit or network can be replaced by a single energy source in series with a single internal source resistance, RS. Generally, this source resistance or even impedance if inductors or capacitors are involved is of a fixed value in Ohm´s. However, when we connect a load resistance, RL across the output terminals of the power source, the impedance of the load will vary from an opencircuit state to a shortcircuit state resulting in the power being absorbed by the load becoming dependent on the impedance of the actual power source. Then for the load resistance to absorb the maximum power possible it has to be "Matched" to the impedance of the power source and this forms the basis of Maximum Power Transfer.
Maximum Power Transfer is another useful analysis method to ensure that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated in the load resistance when the value of the load resistance is exactly equal to the resistance of the power source. The relationship between the load impedance and the internal impedance of the energy source will give the power in the load. Consider the circuit below.
Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit.
In our Thevenin equivalent circuit above, the maximum power transfer theorem states that "the maximum amount of power will be dissipated in the load resistance if it is equal in value to the Thevenin or Norton source resistance of the network supplying the power" in other words, the load resistance resulting in greatest power dissipation must be equal in value to the equivalent Thevenin source resistance, then RL = RS but if the load resistance is lower or higher in value than the Thevenin source resistance of the network, its dissipated power will be less than maximum. For example, find the value of the load resistance, RL that will give the maximum power transfer in the following circuit.
Example No1.
Where: RS = 25Ω RL is variable between 0  100Ω VS = 100v 
Then by using the following Ohm's Law equations:
We can now complete the following table to determine the current and power in the circuit for different values of load resistance.
Table of Current against Power


Using the data from the table above, we can plot a graph of load resistance, RL against power, P for different values of load resistance. Also notice that power is zero for an opencircuit (zero current condition) and also for a shortcircuit (zero voltage condition).
Graph of Power against Load Resistance
From the above table and graph we can see that the Maximum Power Transfer occurs in the load when the load resistance, RL is equal in value to the source resistance, RS so then: RS = RL = 25Ω. This is called a "matched condition" and as a general rule, maximum power is transferred from an active device such as a power supply or battery to an external device occurs when the impedance of the external device matches that of the source. Improper impedance matching can lead to excessive power use and dissipation.
Transformer Impedance Matching
One very useful application of impedance matching to provide maximum power transfer is in the output stages of amplifier circuits, where the speakers impedance is matched to the amplifier output impedance to obtain maximum sound power output. This is achieved by using a matching transformer to couple the load to the amplifiers output as shown below.
Transformer Coupling
The maximum power transfer can be obtained even if the output impedance is not the same as the load impedance. This can be done using a suitable "turns ratio" on the transformer with the corresponding ratio of load impedance, ZLOAD to output impedance, ZOUT matches that of the ratio of the transformers primary turns to secondary turns as a resistance on one side of the transformer becomes a different value on the other. If the load impedance, ZLOAD is purely resistive and the source impedance is purely resistive, ZOUT then the equation for finding the maximum power transfer is given as:
Where: NP is the number of primary turns and NS the number of secondary turns on the transformer. Then by varying the value of the transformers turns ratio the output impedance can be "matched" to the source impedance to achieve maximum power transfer. For example,
Example No2.
If an 8Ω loudspeaker is to be connected to an amplifier with an output impedance of 1000Ω, calculate the turns ratio of the matching transformer required to provide maximum power transfer of the audio signal. Assume the amplifier source impedance is Z1, the load impedance is Z2 with the turns ratio given as N.
Generally, small transformers used in low power audio amplifiers are usually regarded as ideal so any losses can be ignored.